Abstract: Pistachio figures prominently among other nuts due to its nutritious value. Because of its high food value and favorable taste, planting pistachio trees has become common in other parts of the world.
Pistachio product as a commercial output has a special importance in the agricultural production of some countries like Iran and contains large portion of non-petroleum exportation.
According to the latest statistics released by the World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) affiliated to the United Nations, the pistachio production in the world stood at 548,759 metric tones (MTs) in 2002, Iran ranking first with a production of 300,000 MTs. The U.S. with a production of 127,010 MTs, Turkey with 40,000 MTs, Syria with 39,208 MTs, and China with 26,000 MTs took other places after Iran. The pistachio gardens in Iran's rival country, the U.S. occupies a total area of 44,000 hectares vs. 280000 hectares in Iran. Iran ranks first in the world in terms of pistachio production and harvested area but it does not enjoy such a high position in global marketing due to exporting challenges.
The USA as Iran's rival in pistachio global markets tries in many devices to improve its situation and gain in global war of pistachio production and export by defecting Iran, and USA with advanced technology may win in this war of globalization process. Of course, major markets in Europe, East Asia, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf littoral states use Iranian pistachios at present, but it is necessary that Iran observe international standards and make investments in marketing and exporting processing industries and find new target markets for this product, particularly by eliminating limitations and entering WTO.
In this study, existing position and challenges of major producing and exporting countries with especial reference to Iran and USA are considered and a number of strategies are recommended for an effective competition in global markets.